Peran Bersihan Laktat pada Kesintasan Pasien Sepsis Berat

Wirawan Hambali, Lie Khie Chen, Djoko Widodo, Esthika Dewiasty, Herdiman T Pohan, Suhendro Suhendro

Abstract

Pendahuluan. Sepsis Berat merupakan masalah kesehatan dengan tingkat mortalitas yang tinggi serta insiden yang terus meningkat. Bersihan laktat menggambarkan kinetika metabolisme anaerob pasien sepsis berat dan merupakan parameter yang potensial untuk mengevaluasi kondisi penyakit dan intervensi pengobatan yang didapat pasien. Namun demikian, hubungan antara bersihan laktat terhadap terjadinya kematian pasien sepsis berat belum diketahui. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh bersihan laktat terhadap kesintasan pasien dengan sepsis berat, serta faktor-faktor perancu yang mempengaruhi hubungan tersebut.

Metode. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kohort prospektif yang dilaksanakan di Unit Gawat Darurat dan ruang perawatan Rumah Sakit dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo (RSCM) pada bulan Maret-Mei 2011. Pasien termasuk dalam kelompok bersihan laktat tinggi bila terdapat perbedaan kadar laktat ≥10% dalam 6 jam pertama pengobatan, sedangkan perbedaan <10% termasuk ke dalam kelompok bersihan laktat rendah. Selanjutnya, dilakukan observasi terhadap terjadinya kematian dalam 10 hari pertama perawatan pada kedua kelompok. Data yang terkumpul selanjutnya dianalisis mengunakan uji statistik log-rank test, serta dicari nilai hazard ratio dengan menggunakan uji cox regression model. Selanjutnya, dilakukan analisis variabel perancu dengan menggunakan uji cox regression.

Hasil. Laju kesintasan kelompok bersihan laktat tinggi dan rendah masing-masing sebesar 60,0% dan 26,7% (p=0,004). Median kesintasan yaitu 3 hari pada bersihan laktat rendah, sedangkan kematian tidak mencapai 50% pada bersihan laktat tinggi. Interkuartil I kedua kelompok berturut-turut sebesar 1 dan 4 hari. Dari analisis didapatkan hazard ratio sebesar 2,87 (IK 95%; 1,41-5,83). Pada analisis multivariat keberadaan syok sepsis, skor SOFA, penggunaan vasopresor/inotropik, transfusi dan cairan resusitasi, tidak ada yang mengubah nilai hazard ratio >10%. Oleh karena itu, tidak ada yang memenuhi syarat untuk disebut sebagai perancu.

Simpulan. Pasien bersihan laktat tinggi memiliki kesintasan lebih tinggi dibandingkan pasien bersihan laktat rendah dan hubungan tersebut tidak dipengaruhi perancu. 

 

Kata Kunci: bersihan laktat, kesintasan, sepsis berat

 

The Role of Lactate Clearance in Severe Septic Patients Survival

Introduction. Severe Sepsis is a major health problem that known to results high mortality rate, and still its incidents continue to rise. Lactate clearance represents kinetics alteration of anaerobic metabolism in severe septic patients that makes it to become a potential parameter to evaluate severity of one’s illness and intervention adequacy that received by the patient. However, the relationship between lactate clearance and occurrence of death in severe septic patients is still unknown.

Methods. This is a prospective cohort study that conducted in Ciptomangunkusumo Hospital, from March to May 2011. Patients were categorized into high lactate clearance group if there were differences in lactate levels ≥ 10% in which occurred within the first 6 hours of the treatment, and contrary were categorized into low lactate clearance group. Occurrences of death were observed within the first 10 days. Afterward, the data were analyzed by means of survival analysis, Kapplan Meier curve were made, survival rate and median survival rate were determined, statistical test were calculated using log-rank test, and hazard ratios were calculated using Cox regression model test. Analysis of Confounder Variable was also performed using multivariate Cox regression test.

Results. The survival rate for high and low lactate clearance group were 60.0% vs. 26.7%, respectively (p=0,004). In low lactate clearance group the median survival was 3 days, while the mortality rate did not reach 50% in high lactate clearance group. The first Interquartile for these two groups was 1 day and 4 days, respectively. The hazard ratio that obtained from the analysis was 2.87 (95% CI, 1.41 - 5.83). On multivariate analysis the presence of septic shock, SOFA score, the use of vasopresor/inotropic, blood transfusion, fluid resuscitation didn’t change the hazard ratio value more than 10%. For that reason, these parameters were not considered as confounder.

Conclusions. Patients with high lactate clearance have a better survival rate compared to patients with low lactate clearance, and its relationship is not influenced by confounder.

Keywords

lactate clearance, severe septic, survival

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