Perubahan Status Koagulasi Pasien Kanker Padat Pasca Kemoterapi di Indonesia: Sebuah Studi Prospektif

Noorwati Sutandyo, Lyana Setiawan

Abstract

Pendahuluan. Hiperkoagulasi merupakan faktor yang mendasari tingginya mortalitas akibat kejadian tromboemboli vena pada pasien kanker. Kemoterapi merupakan salah satu faktor yang diduga berkontribusi terhadap status hiperkoagulasi pada pasien kanker. Studi ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi perubahan status koagulasi yang ditandai dengan kadar D-dimer pada pasien kanker yang menjalani kemoterapi.

Metode. Studi ini merupakan studi kohort prospektif di Pusat Kanker Nasional Indonesia yang melibatkan pasien kanker yang sudah terkonfirmasi melalui pemeriksaan histopatologi, dan memulai kemoterapi pada periode Mei hingga Juli 2018. Perubahan status koagulasi dinilai melalui kadar D-dimer plasma. Kadar D-dimer diukur sebelum dan 7 hari setelah kemoterapi. Analisis statistik menggunakan uji t berpasangan untuk menilai kemaknaan perubahan kadar D-dimer plasma sebelum dan setelah kemoterapi.

Hasil. Sejumlah 89 pasien memenuhi kriteria inklusi, yang mana 74,2% adalah perempuan dan hampir separuh dari keseluruhan subjek terdiagnosis kanker payudara (44,9%). Mayoritas subjek (69,6%) terdiagnosis pada stadium III atau IV. Sejumlah 12,4% dari subjek mendapatkan kemoterapi berbasis cisplatin. Terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna antara kadar D-dimer sebelum dan setelah kemoterapi (p = 0,05). Studi ini juga menemukan perbedaan bermakna kadar D-dimer sebelum dan sesudah kemoterapi pada pasien kanker stadium III (t(35) = 2,48, p = 0,02) dan stadium IV (t(25) = 2,14, p = 0,04). Tidak terdapat perbedaan bermakna antara kadar D-dimer sebelum dan setelah kemoterapi pada pasien stadium I dan II. Analisis lanjutan berdasarkan kelompok kemoterapi menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perubahan kadar D-dimer yang bermakna pada kelompok yang mendapatkan kemoterapi cisplatin (t(10) = 2,31, p = 0,04), namun tidak pada kelompok yang mendapat kemoterapi non-cisplatin (t(77) = 1,50, p = 0,14).

Simpulan. Terdapat perbedaan bermakna status koagulasi yang ditandai dengan kadar D-dimer 7 hari pasca mendapatkan kemoterapi, khususnya pada pasien kanker stadium III atau IV dan mendapatkan kemoterapi berbasis cisplatin.

 

Kata Kunci: Cisplatin, kanker, kemoterapi, status koagulasi


Change of Coagulation Status in Solid Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy in Indonesia: A Prospective Cohort Study

Introduction. Cancer-associated hypercoagulability was an underlying factor of high mortality of cancer due to venous thromboembolism. Chemotherapy is proposed as one of the contributing factors of the hypercoagulable state. We aim to evaluate the change of coagulation status, which was marked by D-dimer level, in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

Methods. This is a prospective cohort study in Indonesian national cancer center which involves all adult histologically-confirmed-cancer patients who started chemotherapy between May and July 2018. The coagulation status is assessed by plasma of D-dimer level. We measured D-dimer before chemotherapy and one week after chemotherapy. Paired t-test was performed to assess the significant difference in D-dimer levels before and after chemotherapy.

Results. A total of 89 patients fulfilled the eligibility criteria, of whom 74.2% were female and almost half of total subjects (44.9%) were breast cancer patients. Majority of subjects (69.6%) were stage III or stage IV cancer. There were 12.4% of subjects received cisplatin-based chemotherapy. There was a marginally significant difference in plasma level of D-dimers before and after chemotherapy (p = 0.05). We also found significant differences between D-dimer level before and after chemotherapy in stage III patients (t(35) = 2.48, p = 0.02) and stage IV patients (t(25) = 2.14, p = 0.04). There was no significant difference between D-dimer level before and after chemotherapy in stage I and stage II patients. Subgroup analyses based on chemotherapy agents showed that there was significant D-dimer change in cisplatin-based chemotherapy subjects (t(10) = 2.31, p = 0.04), but not in non-cisplatin-based chemotherapy subjects (t(77) = 1,50, p = 0.14).

Conclusion. Compared to before chemotherapy, there is a significant difference of coagulation status marked by plasma D-dimer level one week after chemotherapy, particularly in patients with stage III or stage IV cancer and in patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy.


Keywords

Cancer, chemotherapy, cisplatin, coagulation status

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