Proporsi Reaksi Transfusi Akut di Unit Transfusi Rawat Jalan Rumah Sakit Rujukan Tersier di Indonesia

Ahmad Fariz Malvi Zamzam Zein, Lugyanti Sukrisman

Abstract

Pendahuluan. Reaksi transfusi akut (RTA) merupakan isu yang penting terkait dengan keselamatan pasien dalam layanan transfusi darah. Prevalensi RTA di rumah sakit di Indonesia dilaporkan sebesar 0,5%. Studi ini bertujuan untuk menginvestigasi proporsi RTA di unit transfusi rawat jalan di rumah sakit tersier.

Metode. Studi ini merupakan studi retrospektif yang menggunakan data sekunder (rekam medis) pasien usia >18 tahun yang menjalani transfusi darah di Unit Transfusi Rawat Jalan RSUPN Cipto Mangunkusumo selama Agustus-Oktober 2014. Dilakukan pengumpulan data meliputi komponen darah, pemberian premedikasi transfusi darah, dan gejala/tanda terkait RTA. Komponen darah meliputi packed red cells (PRC), thrombocye concentrate (TC) biasa, fresh frozen plasma (FFP), dan cryoprecipitate. Kriteria RTA yang digunakan yaitu berdasar pada klasifikasi WHO.

Hasil. Terdapat 1.010 transfusi darah selama periode studi. Distribusi komponen darah adalah PRC (n=802, 79,4%), TC (n=74, 7,3%), FFP (n=43, 4,3%), dan cryoprecipitate (n=91, 9,0%). Pemberian premedikasi transfusi darah terdapat 21 (2,1%) transfusi. Terdapat 11 RTA pada studi ini (1,1%) yang semuanya termasuk kategori 1. Berdasar komponen darah, RTA terjadi pada transfusi PRC (0,6%), diikuti pada transfusi FFP (0,3%), cryoprecipitate (0,1%), dan TC biasa (0,1%).

Simpulan. Proporsi RTA di unit transfusi rawat jalan RSUPN Cipto Mangunkusumo sebesar 1,1%. Pada studi ini didapatkan semua RTA termasuk kategori 1 berdasar klasifikasi WHO dengan RTA tersering didapatkan pada transfusi PRC.

Kata Kunci: Keselamatan pasien, proporsi, reaksi transfusi akut, transfusi darah

 

The Proportion of Acute Transfusion Reaction at Outpatient Blood Transfusion Unit In Tertiary Hospital in Indonesia

Introduction. Acute transfusion reaction (ATR) is an important issue related to patient safety. The prevalence of ATR at tertiary hospital in Indonesia is 0.5%. This study was aimed to determine the proportion of ATR in outpatient blood transfusion unit at tertiary hospital.

Method. This retrospective study implemented data from medical records of adult patients who underwent blood transfusion in outpatient blood transfusion unit, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital between August – October 2014. The blood components included packed red cells (PRC), thrombocyte concentrate (TC), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and cryoprecipitate. We recorded the administration of premedication and ATR-related symptoms/signs. The ATR report was based on WHO classification.

Results. There were 1,010 blood transfusions during the study period. The distribution of blood components were PRC (n=802, 79.4%), PC (n=74, 7.3%), FFP (n=43, 4.3%), and cryoprecipitate (n=91, 9.0%). The premedication was administered in 21 transfusions (2.1%). There were 11 ATRs with WHO category 1 (1.1%),  no other categories were reported. Based on blood component, the ATR occurred predominantly in PRC transfusion (0.6%), followed by FFP (0.3%), cryoprecipitate (0.1%), and TC (0.1%), respectively.

Conclusion. The proportion of ATR in outpatients blood transfusion unit at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital was 1.1%. All reported ATR were category 1 in this study. The ATR was predominantly in PRC transfusion.


Keywords

Acute transfusion reaction, blood transfusion, patient safety, proportion

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