Perbedaan Adekuasi Asupan Nutrisi Lansia Sarkopenia dengan dan Tanpa Sarkopenia di Panti Werdha Bandung

Delia Anastasia Tirtadjaja, Muhamad Apandi, Lazuardhi Dwipa

Abstract

Pendahuluan. Perubahan rutinitas sehari-hari, termasuk pola dan asupan nutrisi akan membuat lanjut usia (lansia) lebih rentan terhadap malnutrisi atau gizi kurang, dan berpengaruh terhadap peningkatan risiko sarkopenia yang dapat berujung pada luaran buruk seperti jatuh, fraktur, hospitalisasi, disabilitas, dan kematian. Presentase sarkopenia di panti werdha lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan lansia di komunitas. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui perbedaan adekuasi asupan nutrisi lansia sarkopenia dengan tanpa sarkopenia di panti werdha Bandung.
Metode. Studi potong lintang dilakukan di Balai Perlindungan Tresna Werdha (BPSTW) Ciparay dan Panti Werdha Budi Istri, Bandung. Sarkopenia ditegakan menggunakan kriteria Asian Working Group of Sarcopenia (AWGS). Asupan nutrisi dinilai menggunakan metode 24 hours food recall sebanyak dua kali pada hari yang berbeda oleh tenaga gizi terlatih. Asupan nutrisi dikatakan adekuat bila memenuhi kebutuhan kalori total (≥25 kkal/kgBB/hari) dan protein (≥ 1g/kgBB/hari) sesuai dengan rekomendasi American Geriatric Society (AGS).
Hasil. Terdapat 65 subjek penelitian yang terbagi menjadi 2 kelompok yaitu kelompok dengan sarkopenia dan tanpa sarkopenia, masing-masing sebanyak 31 dan 34 subjek. Penyediaan makanan oleh pengelola panti werdha sudah memenuhi kecukupan nilai gizi, namun berdasarkan hasil analisis adekuasi nutrisi, lansia sarkopenia tidak memiliki asupan nutrisi yang adekuat (p=0,001).
Simpulan. Terdapat perbedaan adekuasi asupan nutrisi lansia sarkopenia dengan tanpa sarkopenia di panti werdha Bandung. Lansia sarkopenia lebih banyak yang memiliki asupan nutrisi yang tidak adekuat dibandingkan lansia tanpa sarkopenia.
Kata Kunci: Asupan, lansia, nutrisi, sarkopenia

The difference in Nutrition Intake Adequacy Among Institutionalized Elderly Residents with and without Sarcopenia at Nursing Homes in Bandung, West Java

 

Introduction. The Changes in the elderly’s daily routine including dietary intake and nutritional pattern may cause them to be more susceptible to malnutrition. The changes also increase the risk of sarcopenia that may lead to poor health outcomes such as fall injury, fracture, hospitalization, disability, or even death. Sarcopenia is more likely to occur in a nursing home compared to community settings. This study aimed to determine the difference in nutrition intake adequacy between institutionalized elderly subjects with and without sarcopenia in Bandung, West Java. 

Methods. A cross-sectional study was held in Ciparay and Budi Istri Nursing Home, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. Sarcopenia was determined based on the Asian Working Group of Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria. Nutritional intake was assessed with two non-consecutive 24-hour food recalls and nutritional adequacy was defined based on the American Geriatric Society (AGS) recommendation, which included a total energy intake of ≥ 25kcal/kg BW/day and protein intake of ≥1g/kg BW/day. 

Results. The present study included 65 older adults, who were categorized into 2 groups, i.e. sarcopenic (31 subjects) and non-sarcopenic groups (34 subjects). Despite the food served having already met daily dietary reference intakes, the sarcopenic elderly subjects showed inadequate nutritional intake (p=0.001) compared to non-sarcopenic elderly subjects.

Conclusion.There are differences in nutrition intake adequacy between sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic institutionalized elderly subjects in Bandung. Elderly subjects with sarcopenia had more inadequate nutrition intake than non-sarcopenic elderly subjects.

Keywords

Elderly, intake, nutrition, sarcopenia

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