Faktor-Faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Lama Rawat Inap Pasien COVID-19 di RSUD Serui Provinsi Papua: Studi Potong Lintang

Fahri Ahmad Baihaqi, Henny Rumaropen

Abstract

Pendahuluan. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) merupakan penyakit infeksi pernapasan yang disebabkan oleh Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) yang telah menjadi masalah kesehatan global. Lama rawat inap pasien berhubungan dengan penggunaan sumber daya rumah sakit. Pasien COVID-19 berisiko mengalami peningkatan lama rawat inap oleh berbagai faktor dan lama rawat inap yang meningkat dapat meningkatkan beban pelayanan kesehatan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi lama rawat inap pasien COVID-19.
Metode. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian analitik observasional dengan desain studi potong lintang yang dilaksanakan di Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Serui Provinsi Papua. Subjek penelitian adalah pasien COVID-19 yang menjalani rawat inap selama periode September 2020 – Agustus 2021 yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan teknik purposive sampling. Variabel independen meliputi jenis kelamin, usia, demam, batuk, nyeri tenggorokan, sesak napas, myalgia, malaise, nyeri kepala, anosmia, muntah, diare, komorbiditas, diabetes, hipertensi, asma, TBC, malaria, hemoglobin, leukosit, trombosit, dan rasio neutrofil limfosit (RNL). Variabel dependen adalah lama rawat inap. Data yang digunakan merupakan data rekam medis. Analisis bivariat dilakukan dengan uji chi square, dan uji fisher sebagai alternatif bila persyaratan tidak terpenuhi. Pada variabel yang bermakna selanjutnya dilakukan analisis multivariat dengan uji regresi logistik.
Hasil. Dari 48 subjek pasien COVID-19 yang menjalani rawat inap selama periode September 2020 – Agustus 2021 di Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Serui Provinsi Papua, didapatkan 26 subjek (54,2%) menjalani lama rawat inap selama >11 hari. Median lama rawat inap adalah 11 hari. Berdasarkan hasil analisis multivariat menunjukkan bahwa faktor yang berhubungan dengan lama rawat inap pasien COVID-19 adalah pasien dengan manifestasi klinis berupa demam (p=0,003; OR 10,59; IK 95% 2,22-50,49) dan RNL (p=0,034; OR 4,55; IK 95% 1,12-18,49).
Simpulan. Demam dan RNL merupakan faktor yang berhubungan dengan lama rawat inap pasien COVID-19 di Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Serui Provinsi Papua.
Kata Kunci: COVID-19, demam, lama rawat inap, RNL.

 

Factors Associated with Length of Stay of COVID-19 Patients at Serui Regional General Hospital Papua Province: Cross-Sectional Study

Introduction. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory infectious disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 has become a global health problem. The length of stay of the patient is related to the use of hospital resources. COVID-19 patients are at risk of increasing length of stay due to various factors and the increased length of stay can increase the burden of health services. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence the length of stay of COVID-19 patients.
Methods. An observational analytic study with a cross-sectional design was conducted at Serui Regional General Hospital, Papua Province. The subjects were COVID-19 patients hospitalized from September 2020 – August 2021 who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Subjects were selected by purposive sampling technique. The Independent variables were gender, age, fever, cough, sore throat, shortness of breath, myalgia, malaise, headache, anosmia, vomiting, diarrhea, comorbidities, diabetes, hypertension, asthma, tuberculosis, malaria, hemoglobin, leukocytes, platelets, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). The dependent variable was the length of stay. Data were obtained from medical records. Bivariate analysis was done with chi-square test, Fisher’s test is used as an alternative if the requirements were not met. Significant variables were analyzed with a multivariate logistic regression test.
Results. From 48 subjects of COVID-19 patients hospitalized from September 2020 – August 2021 at Serui Regional General Hospital, Papua Province there were 26 subjects (54.2%) with a length of stay >11 days. The median length of stay was 11 days. Multivariate analysis showed that the factors associated with the length of stay in COVID-19 patients were fever (p=0.003; OR 10.59; 95% CI 2.22-50.49) and NLR (p=0.034; OR 4, 55; 95% CI 1.12-18.49).
Conclusion. Fever and NLR are factors associated with the length of stay of COVID-19 patients at the Serui Regional General Hospital, Papua Province.



Keywords

COVID-19, fever, length of stay, NLR

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