Mutasi dan Varian Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Tinjauan Literatur Terkini

Adityo Susilo, Chyntia Olivia Maurine Jasirwan, Syahidatul Wafa, Suzy Maria, Wulyo Rajabto, Akhmadu Muradi, Ihza Fachriza, Myranda Zahrah Putri, Stacy Gabriella

Abstract

Pandemi Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) telah berlangsung sejak Maret 2020 hingga saat ini sudah hampir dua tahun melanda dunia, tak terkecuali Indonesia. Dalam perjalanannya sebagai patogen, SARS-CoV-2 sudah mengalami beberapa mutasi menjadi berbagai varian yang menjadi perhatian dunia. Varian-varian virus ini dikhawatirkan menghambat resolusi wabah, bahkan membuat wabah tidak terkendali. Masih banyak kontroversi dan riset yang berjalan tentang varian-varian baru SARS-CoV-2. Mekanisme penularan yang cepat dan belum meluasnya cakupan vaksinasi telah menyebabkan virus ini cepat bermutasi dan menimbulkan beberapa jenis varian baru. Hingga terakhir ini timbul varian baru Omicron (B.1.1.529) yang pertama ditemukan pada November 2021 di Afrika Selatan dan telah menyebar ke 103 negara. Daya transmisi Omicron yang lebih kuat dibandingkan varian sebelumnya membuat Omicron ditetapkan sebagai variant of concern (VoC). Meskipun beberapa informasi menyebutkan gejala yang ditimbulkan oleh varian ini cenderung ringan, akan tetapi kecepatan transmisi Omicron berpotensi menimbulkan peningkatan gelombang kasus COVID-19 berikutnya. Studi lebih lanjut diperlukan untuk mengetahui daya transmisi, patogenesis, diagnosis dan tata laksana yang tepat. Oleh karena itu, kami melakukan telaah terhadap studi-studi terkait berbagai mutasi dan varian COVID-19 hingga Januari 2022.
Kata Kunci: COVID-19, mutasi, Omicron, pandemi, varian

Mutation and Variant of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Review of Current Literatures

Since March 2020, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has engulfed the world, including Indonesia, for nearly two years. SARS-CoV-2 has undergone several mutations during its evolution as a pathogen, resulting in various variants of global concern. Variants of this virus are suspected to impede the outbreak resolution and possibly causing the outbreak to spiral out of control. There is still considerable debate and research underway regarding the new SARS-CoV-2 variants. Rapid transmission mechanisms and widespread vaccination coverage have accelerated the virus’s mutation rate and resulted in numerous new variants. To date, this has resulted in the discovery of a new variant Omicron (B.1.1.529) in November 2021 in South Africa, which has since spread to 103 countries. Omicron is designated a Variant of Concern (VoC) due to its more powerful transmission than the previous variant. Although some information indicates that the symptoms associated with this variant are typically mild, the rapid transmission of Omicron can increase the next wave of COVID-19 cases. Additional research is required to determine transmissibility, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and proper management. As a result, we conducted an adjunct to studies on various COVID-19 mutations and variants until January 2022.

Keywords

COVID-19, mutation, Omicron, pandemic, variant

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